Overview and how to treat kidney stones

Kidney stones or renal lithiasis, is a condition that occurs mostly in adults, with chronic dehydration.
Causes of lithiasis 

  • Limited fluid intake
  • Performing strenuous exercise without proper hydration
  • Excessive salt intake
  • Continuously carry out outdoor activities with sun exposure
  • Trades in places with high temperatures such as kitchens and factories
  • Sedentary lifestyle

It takes several months for a stone to form and grow large enough to cause a blockage. The stones are made of minerals, mostly calcium, their consistency is rigid.
The symptoms that appear due to kidney stones are due to the obstruction that they cause in the ureter, the tube through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.
People who have stones or stones in the urinary tract have a lot of pain, this pain is located on one side, in the back or lower abdomen, depending on where the stone is. The pain starts quickly and is very intense. It can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Sometimes there are discomforts to urinate such as burning, bleeding in the urine (hematuria) and a frequent desire to urinate. 

  • Severe pain on one side of the abdomen or back
  • Discomfort to urinate such as bleeding, urgency, urinary urgency
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever if a urinary infection is added

The diagnosis of urinary lithiasis is made by X-ray studies, being the tomography the most reliable study. The treatment of lithiasis will depend on the size of the stone and the site of the urinary tract where it is found. If the stones are small, they can be expelled with medication or spontaneously. If the stones remain in the ureter for a long time, they can cause kidney failure that can become irreversible. There are endoscopic treatments to remove stones from the urinary tract. These consist of introducing small cameras through the urethra to access the interior of the bladder and ureter to then fragment the stones with a laser and be able to extract them into small parts. These operations are minimally invasive and leave no scars, patients after these operations have very little pain and recover faster than an open operation.

  • Medication
  • Endoscopic laser surgeries
  • Open surgery

It is advisable to analyze the fragments of kidney stones to know their exact composition and to prevent future stones. Patients who have had stones in the urinary tract have up to 50% chance of having stones again in a period of 5 years.
Preventive measures to avoid forming kidney stones.

  • Consume enough water, depending on your lifestyle and body composition
  • Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun and high temperatures
  • Moderate salt intake
  • Moderate consumption of processed foods
  • Moderate the consumption of proteins of animal origin